Constants

  • C Constants are also like normal variables. But, only difference is, their values can not be modified by the program once they are defined.
  • Constants refer to fixed values. They are also called as literals
  • Constants may be belonging to any of the data type.
  • Syntax:

const data_type variable_name; (or) const data_type *variable_name;

Example Program For Constant

screenshot-29

Types Of Constants

  1. Integer constants
  2. Real or Floating point constants
  3. Octal & Hexadecimal constants
  4. Character constants
  5. String constants
  6. Backslash character constants

Rules For Declaring Constants

Integer Constants

  • An integer constant must have at least one digit.
  • It must not have a decimal point.
  • It can either be positive or negative.
  • No commas or blanks are allowed within an integer constant.
  • If no sign precedes an integer constant, it is assumed to be positive.
  • The allowable range for integer constants is -32768 to 32767.

Real Constants

  • A real constant must have at least one digit
  • It must have a decimal point
  • It could be either positive or negative
  • If no sign precedes an integer constant, it is assumed to be positive.
  • No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant.

Character And String Constants

  • A character constant is a single alphabet, a single digit or a single special symbol enclosed within single quotes.
  • The maximum length of a character constant is 1 character.
  • String constants are  enclosed within double quotes.

Backslash Character Constants

  • There are some characters which have special meaning in C language.
  • They should be preceded by backslash symbol to make use of special function of them.
  • Given below is the list of special characters and their purpose.

backslash

Example For Backslash Characters

Output

#define Preprocessor